Sputnik 1It included measuring the density of the atmosphere, its ion composition, corpuscular solar radiation, magnetic fields, cosmic rays, etc. Such a complex should include up to 15 measurement stations.
would launch a satellite before the USSR, OKB-1 suggested the creation and launch of a satellite in April-May 1957, before the IGY began in July 1957. Object D would later fly as Sputnik 3. Fearing the U.S.
The satellite traveled at 29,000 kilometers (18,000 mi) per hour, taking 96.2 minutes to complete an orbit, and emitted radio signals at 20.005 and 40.002 MHz The history of the Sputnik 1 project dates back to 27 May 1954, when Sergei Korolev addressed Dmitry Ustinov, then Minister of Defense Industries, proposing the development of an Earth-orbiting artificial satellite. Because of the limited time frame, they should have means designed for rocket R-7 observations.
This satellite, named Object D , was planned to be completed in 1957-58; it would have a mass of 1,000 to 1,400 kg (2,200 to 3,090 lb) and would carry 200 to 300 kg (440 to 660 lb) of scientific instruments. By July 1956 the draft was completed and the scientific tasks to be carried out by a satellite were defined. They were: NIP-1 (at Tyuratam station, Kazakh SSR, situated not far from IP-1), NIP-2 (at Makat station, Guryev Oblast), NIP-3 (at Sary-Shagan station, Dzhezkazgan Oblast), NIP-4 (at Yeniseysk), NIP-5 (at village Iskup, Krasnoyarsk Krai), NIP-6 (at Yelizovo) and NIP-7 (at Klyuchi). The chief constructor of Sputnik 1 at OKB-1 was M.S.Khomyakov. The power supply, with a mass of 51 kg (110 lb), The satellite had a one-watt, 3.5 kg (7.7 lb) While attached to the rocket, Sputnik 1 was protected by a cone-shaped payload fairing, with a height of 80 cm (31.5 in) and an aperture of 48 degrees.
Then tune to slightly higher frequencies. It was called the Command-Measurement Complex and consisted of the coordination center in NII-4 by the Ministry of Defence of the USSR (at Bolshevo) and seven ground tracking stations, situated along the line of the satellite s ground track.
Sputnik crushed the American ego as the technological superpower by demonstrating that the Soviets were not the ignorant easterners they had been perceived as prior to the launch. The elevated perception of the Soviet Union was further solidified by the actions of the American government following Sputnik 1. American society underwent an enormous shift that emphasized science and technological research.
Consequently the government re-scheduled the launch for April 1958. By the end of 1956 it became clear that plans for Object D were not to be fulfilled in time because of difficulties creating scientific instruments and the low specific impulse produced by the completed R-7 engines (304 sec instead of the planned 309 to 310 sec).
It also provided data on radio-signal distribution in the ionosphere. The new satellite would be simple, light (100 kg or 220 lb), and easy to construct, forgoing the complex, heavy scientific equipment in favour of a simple radio transmitter.
They had been organized in Project Moonwatch to sight the satellite through binoculars or telescopes as it passed overhead. News reports at the time pointed out that anyone possessing a short wave receiver can hear the new Russian earth satellite as it hurtles over his area of the globe . The satellite itself, a small but highly polished sphere, was barely visible at sixth magnitude, and thus more difficult to follow optically.
The beep, beep sound of the satellite can be heard each time it rounds the globe, At first the Soviet Union agreed to use equipment compatible with that of the United States, but later announced the lower frequencies. The propaganda value of Sputnik 1 was seen in both the response of the United States and the elevated status of the Soviet Union. The downlink telemetry included data on temperatures inside and on the surface of the sphere. On the first orbit the Telegraph Agency of the Soviet Union (TASS) transmitted: As result of great, intense work of scientific institutes and design bureaus the first artificial Earth satellite has been built .
State propaganda increased the pride the Russian people had in the project; millions of people listened to Sputnik s signals on the radio. This Russian page contains signals which are probably the faster pulsations from Sputnik-2: A NASA history website on Sputnik contains this commonly copied recording, which is some pulse-duration-modulated signal of an unknown spacecraft: Historical sections Other sites of interest: . If a meteoroid penetrated the satellite s outer hull, it would be detected by the temperature data sent back to Earth. Sputnik-1 was launched during the International Geophysical Year from Site No.1, at the 5th Tyuratam range, in Kazakh SSR (now at the Baikonur Cosmodrome).
On 15 February 1957 the Council of Ministers of the USSR approved this, providing for launching the simplest version satellite, designated Object PS . The two-stage R-7 rocket was initially designed as an ICBM by OKB-1. Directions, provided by the American Radio Relay League were to Tune in 20 megacycles sharply, by the time signals, given on that frequency.
Простейший Спутник-1 , or Elementary Satellite-1)) was the first Earth-orbiting artificial satellite. Sputnik 1 was launched by an R-7 rocket on 4 October 1957.
The decision to build it was made by the CPSU Central Committee and the Council of Ministers of the USSR on 20 May 1954. The flight was controlled until the 98th second, but a fire in a strap-on rocket led to an unintended crash 400 km from the site. The launch of the fourth rocket (8K71 No.8), on 21 August at 15:25 Moscow Time, On 22 September a modified R-7 rocket, named Sputnik Rocket (Russian: ракета-носитель Спутник) and indexed as 8K71PS, with the satellite PS-1, arrived at the proving ground and preparations for the launch began. The measurement complex at the proving ground for monitoring launch vehicle parameters from its start onward was completed prior to the first R-7 rocket test launches in December 1956.
A ground observational complex was to be developed, that would collect information transmitted by the satellite, observe the satellite s orbit, and transmit commands to the satellite. The launch provided both pride for the Soviet people and embarrassment for the Americans that made it an exceptional piece of propaganda. The enormous propaganda value of Sputnik for the Soviet Union was not capitalized immediately after the launch because the Soviets were distracted by their own scientific goals and determination to win the Space Race. The value of Sputnik 1 as Soviet propaganda was especially evident in the response of the American public.
Pressurized nitrogen, in the satellite s body, provided the first opportunity for meteoroid detection. Ahead of Sputnik 1 flew the third object – the payload fairing, 80 cm (31 in)-long cone, i.e.
The unanticipated announcement of Sputnik 1 s success precipitated the Sputnik crisis in the United States and ignited the Space Race within the Cold War. Apart from its value as a technological first, Sputnik also helped to identify the upper atmospheric layer s density, through measuring the satellite s orbital changes. It consisted of six static stations: IP-1 through IP-6, with IP-1 situated at a distance of 1 km (0.62 mi) from the launch pad. An additional observational complex, established to track the satellite after its separation from the rocket, was completed by a group led by Colonel Yu.A.Mozzhorin in accordance with the General Staff directive of 8 May 1957.
It was launched into an elliptical low earth orbit by the Soviet Union on 4 October 1957, and was the first in a series of satellites collectively known as the Sputnik program. It burned up upon re-entry on 4 January 1958. The control system of the Sputnik Rocket was tuned to provide an orbit with the following parameters: perigee height - 223 km (139 mi), apogee height - 1,450 km (900 mi), orbital period - 101.5 min. The Sputnik Rocket was launched at 19:28:34 UTC, on 4 October 1957, from Site No.1 at NIIP-5. After 314.5 seconds PS-1 separated from the second stage The designers, engineers and technicians who developed the rocket and satellite watched the launch from the range.
Sputnik 1 (Russian: Спутник-1 Russian pronunciation: , Satellite-1 , ПС-1 (PS-1, i.e. Observations were planned for only 7 to 10 days and orbit calculations were expected to be not quite accurate. Unfortunately, the complexity of the ambitious design and problems in following exact specifications meant that some parts of Object D , when delivered for assembly, simply did not fit with the others, causing costly delays.
Korolev also forwarded Ustinov a report by Mikhail Tikhonravov with an overview of similar projects abroad. On 30 January 1956 the Council of Ministers of the USSR approved practical work on an artificial Earth-orbiting satellite. Sputnik forced the Americans to take up a more offensive stance in the emerging space race. The launch of Sputnik both united the people of the Soviet Union and humiliated the United States with its lack of comparable technology.
that would later be replaced by the much lighter Object PS . The first launch of an R-7 rocket (8K71 No.5L) occurred on 15 May 1957. Data, valuable in creating future satellites, were also to be collected.
a little bit bigger than the satellite. Teams of visual observers at 150 stations in the United States and other countries were alerted during the night to watch for the Soviet sphere at dawn and during the evening twilight.